Review: The best Linux distros for Docker and containers (2024)

Alpine Linux, CoreOS Container Linux, RancherOS, Red Hat Project Atomic, and VMware Photon OS compared.

By Steven Nuñez

Contributing Editor, InfoWorld |

Review: The best Linux distros for Docker and containers (2)

At a Glance

Over the past six months I have reviewed five minimal Linux distributions that are optimized for running containers: Alpine Linux, CoreOS Container Linux, RancherOS, Red Hat Atomic Host, and VMware Photon OS. Generically known as “container operating systems,” these stripped down, purpose built Linux distributions are not the only way to run containers in production, but they provide a base that does not waste resources on anything besides container support.

The state of the industry with container deployment systems is very much like the early days of Linux distributions. You have one key element, in this case the Docker container, that is surrounded by a number of competing ecosystem components. Just as the traditional Linux distros bundled different package managers, desktop environments, system utilities, services, and apps, most container distributions mix and match various components to create what they consider an optimum solution. Take for example distributed configuration and service discovery. There are several solutions for this such as Etcd, Consul, and ZooKeeper.

Each distribution takes a different approach to what to include in the stack. On one extreme there are distributions designed to support only the higher levels of the stack, such as CoreOS Container Linux and Red Hat Project Atomic. So much of the functionality has been put into the proprietary management layer that there is little hope of using the OS for anything else. Other distros, such as RancherOS and VMware Photon OS, provide greater flexibility, supporting multiple ecosystem components and orchestration systems. These give administrators a good way to experiment and potentially avoid vendor lock-in.

Alpine Linux

Alpine Linux, the underlying operating system for many official Docker images, is a great choice for the task. A mere five megabytes in size, Alpine Linux is on the opposite end of the spectrum from the full-fat Linux distributions of a few years ago, which were competing with Solaris and intended to run on massive hardware systems. This new breed of Linux is designed to run on embedded hardware, and consume minimal resources, making it a perfect choice for containers.

Alpine Linux’s legacy as an embedded systems OS was evident during my review. Many of the configuration options default to embedded systems, and the documentation in many areas was sparse, or non-existent. Clearly a system designed for and primarily used by hackers, Alpine Linux will require companies to clear a few hurdles to build their applications.

Production deployments of Alpine Linux will enjoy several advantages including rapid startup, a minimalist footprint, and a secure-by-default stance not found elsewhere. Everything from the system binaries to the C libraries is designed for small, fast, and secure deployments. There is no bloat here.

Administration of Alpine Linux is different than traditional Linux systems, and will take some time to learn. Installation and package management is unique even among the container operating systems, though well thought out. If your development shop has above-average developers who are willing to make the investment, Alpine Linux will provide a solid, stable, secure base for applications for a long time to come.

CoreOS Container Linux

The CoreOS container stack draws on Etcd for distributed storage and service discovery, Flannel for networking, and Kubernetes for container orchestration, and supports its own flavor of container format, rkt (Rocket), in addition to Docker. Rocket was an attempt at a competing container format to address shortcomings in the Docker format circa 2015, but with those deficiencies addressed, Rocket hasn’t seen much uptake.

CoreOS, like Project Atomic, is not afraid of diverging radically from traditional Linux. Like Red Hat’s container OS, CoreOS Container Linux creates a mostly immutable filesystem, but does so with a disk partitioning system inspired by Google’s Chromium OS. What this does is preserve the old filesystem on a partition, meaning that rollbacks are always safe and fast.

Although the documentation is fairly good and comprehensive, I found installation somewhat cumbersome, involving a two-step process to derive the configuration file. Once installed however, CoreOS offers continuous, “no downtime” upgrades, a feature made possible by its unique disk partition layout. CoreOS has done a lot of work here, and the company offers various maintenance options that will suit most any organization, including the ability to opt out.

CoreOS, somewhat like Project Atomic, is an all-or-nothing decision. Picking apart the pieces and using the underlying OS to build your own container infrastructure is not really an option due to all of the architectural design decisions baked into the platform. If you are willing to embrace those decisions and pay for CoreOS’s commercial Kubernetes distribution, Tectonic, no doubt you could perform some seriously heavy lifting.

Rancher Labs RancherOS

Rancher Labs’ RancherOS is a Linux operating system composed entirely of containers. Even the init process (PID 1) is a Docker container. This means that there is no need for a package management system. OS upgrades (and downgrades) are managed with Docker, just like any other container.

Although this approach is equally as radical as the architectural decisions made in some of the other distributions, such as Project Atomic and CoreOS, the result is a surprising simplicity. Although learning any entirely new system administration seems daunting at first, you have to know Docker to manage containers anyway, so why not use the same system for both?

RancherOS seems to be maturing rapidly. In my review I found the documentation a bit lacking, but any developer or administrator familiar with Docker containers will already know most of the system. RancherOS has a small footprint (20MB) and makes efficient use of resources. Although the lines between Rancher the container management system and Rancher the OS are somewhat blurred, the container management system is free and open source, so there is no reason to attempt to roll your own. Organizations that need access to source code should look no further.

The Rancher platform supports nearly the entire ecosystem of tools for container management, including Docker Swarm, Kubernetes, and Mesos, and it is advancing rapidly. Although radically different than traditional UNIX, RancherOS seems to have adhered more closely to the basic UNIX philosophy than the other container OS distributions: Simple tools operating together in an elegant way.

Red Hat Project Atomic

Red Hat’s Project Atomic is firmly in the Kubernetes camp of service orchestration. Typically this type of deployment is geared toward large-scale, highly available scenarios. The downside is that, essentially, you have to “do as you are told” and architect the application by convention.

In the box you will find Flannel for networking, Etcd for distributed key-value storage, and OSTree for host management. OSTree is a relatively new way to deploy an OS at scale in a reliable and distributed fashion. Atomic combines OSTree with a new RPM package manager to create RPM-OSTree, which delivers a mostly immutable filesystem.

I found Project Atomic to be a challenge. It is very ambitious and moving fast, with many moving parts. RHEL, CentOS, Fedora, SELinux, Systemd, a custom “Docker” command-set to control the underlying host… they are all in the mix, and the documentation is disorganized and confusing. Furthermore, in my small cluster, lacking Chef, Salt, or Puppet, I had to manually configure each node.

The bottom line is that Project Atomic still needs some time to bake. If the vision is realized, then it may become the standard of the future — though not for data centers with hundreds of nodes but thousands or tens of thousands. In this respect the vision seems closer to that of Mesos than a typical container deployment system. If your company is living and breathing the Red Hat ecosystem and plans to stay there, then Project Atomic is probably worth getting started with.

VMware Photon OS

VMware’s Photon OS is a minimal Linux container host designed to have a small footprint and tuned for VMware hypervisors. As such, Photon OS only runs in virtual environments; deployment on physical hardware is not possible. Photon OS is customized to make container management easier, but not as radically as Atomic or CoreOS. Photon OS is more of an evolutionary step.

Based on my testing, Photo OS lives up to its promises in the VMware virtual environment. (Photon OS can also run on other hypervisors as well as the Google and Amazon clouds.) Because Photon OS can make assumptions about the hardware (virtual), the ecosystem looks very much like standard Linux, making the learning curve less steep. Networking and storage are Systemd compatible, and there are a range of options documented for container networking. The documentation for Photon OS may be the best among the products reviewed.

VMware is taking the lead in productionizing containers for traditional environments, and this makes sense when you think about it. How often have you been asked to describe the difference between a container and a VM? With Photon OS, there soon won’t be any difference: Containers will just be a lightweight VM, deployed and managed with the same tools. Photon OS supports virtually every major piece of the container ecosystem: Docker and Rocket containers, Docker Swarm, Kubernetes, Mesos, Google Cloud Engine, Amazon EC2, and more.

Of all the distributions I reviewed, VMware Photon OS seems both the most visionary and currently the most complete and usable. If you are a VMware shop exploring containerization, I would not think of considering anything else. If you are not a VMware shop, Photon OS is still worth a good look.

Comparing container operating systems

Alpine Linux underpins most every Docker image out there. Perfect for embedded applications, Alpine Linux should not be thought of as a way to run containers. Instead, in a way, Alpine Linux is the container. Developers familiar with building applications on Alpine Linux will write better container applications.

CoreOS, one of the early container operating systems, adopts the Google technology stack. It offers a reliable, though opinionated, way of managing container infrastructure. While CoreOS makes many of the components available as open source, the complexity of learning such a large stack effectively means users will need to purchase the proprietary Techtonic orchestration system for production deployments. If money is no object, and you need to deploy Google-sized applications, CoreOS a logical choice.

RancherOS is pure containers. If you are going to roll your own container infrastructure, or you want a minimal container management stack, RancherOS is the place to start. With open source orchestration and scheduling tools like Docker Swarm, Kubernetes, and Mesos all freely available, the Rancher stack will appeal to open source oriented, do-it-yourself companies.

Red Hat’s Project Atomic is an umbrella project that is re-architecting the way companies deploy infrastructure. This ambitious project could change the way companies think about application deployment, but the road is a long one. Project Atomic is best suited to early adopters with a large existing investment in Red Hat technologies.

VMware’s Photon OS brings that vendor’s virtual machine management technology and experience to containers. Photon OS is deployed as a virtual machine and is managed with traditional VM tools. VMware, perhaps seeing the writing on the wall for traditional VMs, has wholeheartedly embraced container technology and is rapidly advancing the state of the art. If you are a VMware shop now, you will be hard-pressed to find a better container platform than Photon OS.

Read the container Linux reviews:

  • Review: Alpine Linux is made for Docker
  • CoreOS review: Linux for containers and Kubernetes
  • RancherOS: A simpler Linux for Docker lovers
  • Review: Red Hat does Docker the hard way
  • Review: VMware’s Photon OS shines for Docker containers

At a Glance

  • Alpine Linux

    Learn more

    on Alpine Linux Development Team

  • CoreOS Container Linux

    Learn more

    on CoreOS

  • Rancher Labs RancherOS

    Learn more

    on Rancher Labs

  • Red Hat Project Atomic

    Learn more

    on Project Atomic

  • VMware Photon OS

    Learn more

    on VMware


  • Linux
  • Containers
  • Operating Systems
  • Cloud Computing
  • Docker
  • Kubernetes

Steve Nuñez is technologist-turned-executive currently working as a management consultant helping senior executives apply artificial intelligence in a practical, cost effective manner. He takes an incremental approach to AI adoption, emphasizing the organizational change required for analytics and A.I. to become part of the company DNA.

Before moving to consulting Steve led the professional services and technical pre-sales organizations in Asia Pacific for MapR, a “big data unicorn” acquired by HP Enterprise. While leading the field organization, Steve served clients including Toyota, Bank of China, Philips, Samsung, and the government of India in their bio ID program.

Steve has been a contributing editor and reviewer for InfoWorld since 1999.


Copyright © 2017 IDG Communications, Inc.

How to choose a low-code development platform

Review: The best Linux distros for Docker and containers (2024)


Which Linux OS is best for Docker? ›

If your focus is ease of use, Ubuntu Server is the best Linux distribution for Docker. In less than 20 minutes, you can have a Linux server up and running that offers an incredibly shallow learning curve and does a great job working with Docker.

Is 16gb RAM enough for Docker? ›

In addition, when using Docker CE on Windows, configure Docker to use Linux containers. Using Microsoft Windows Containers is not supported as it provides Windows API support to Windows container service instances. Minimum: 8 GB; Recommended: 16 GB.

Which Linux distro comes with Docker? ›

Alpine Linux, a lightweight distro for Docker images | BellSoft Java. The Cloud-native platform that provides the convenient way to create performant and secure Cloud solutions for your applications. Your universal solution for cloud and deployment, ready for use from-the-box.

What is the number 1 Linux distro? ›

Best Linux distributions for a VPS – Ubuntu Server, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), and Rocky Linux. Most user-friendly Linux distros – Linux Mint, Elementary OS, and Zorin OS. Most lightweight Linux distros – Lubuntu, Linux Lite, and antiX.

Is Raspberry Pi Good for Docker? ›

Docker Raspberry Pi is a tool for developing, deploying and executing applications using containers. It is lightweight and most effective as compared to virtual machines. In this article, we will understand how this Raspberry Pi technology is different and innovative in terms of other competitive technologies.

Is Ubuntu good for Docker? ›

Why is Ubuntu the #1 OS for containers? From Docker to Kubernetes, the experts choose Ubuntu for container operations. The single most important driver of quality, security and performance is the kernel version, and Canonical ensures that Ubuntu always has the very latest kernels with the latest security capabilities.

How many cores do I need for Docker? ›

Performance and Containers

If no value is provided docker will use a default value. On windows, a container defaults to using two CPUs. If hyperthreading is available this is one core and two logical processors. If hyperthreading is not available this is two cores and two logical processors.

How much RAM does a Docker container take? ›

The maximum amount of memory the container can use. If you set this option, the minimum allowed value is 6m (6 megabytes). That is, you must set the value to at least 6 megabytes. The amount of memory this container is allowed to swap to disk.

How much RAM does Docker use Ubuntu? ›

Docker containers are allocated 64 MB of shared memory by default. We'll fire up an Ubuntu container to test.

Which version of Ubuntu is best for Docker? ›

Docker Engine is compatible with x86_64 (or amd64 ), armhf , arm64 , and s390x architectures.
To install Docker Engine, you need the 64-bit version of one of these Ubuntu versions:
  • Ubuntu Kinetic 22.10.
  • Ubuntu Jammy 22.04 (LTS)
  • Ubuntu Focal 20.04 (LTS)
  • Ubuntu Bionic 18.04 (LTS)

What kind of Linux must you have to install Docker on Linux? ›

Step 1 − Before installing Docker, you first have to ensure that you have the right Linux kernel version running. Docker is only designed to run on Linux kernel version 3.8 and higher.

Why is Alpine Linux so small? ›

Alpine Linux is built around musl libc and busybox. This makes it small and very resource efficient. A container requires no more than 8 MB and a minimal installation to disk requires around 130 MB of storage.

What is the best Linux distro for everything? ›

Best Linux Distros For Laptops
  1. Linux Mint. Linux Mint is a popular distribution of Linux based on Ubuntu and Debian. ...
  2. Ubuntu. This is one of the most common Linux distributions used by people. ...
  3. Pop_OS! from System76. ...
  4. MX Linux. ...
  5. Elementary OS. ...
  6. Fedora. ...
  7. Zorin. ...
  8. Deepin.
10 Oct 2022

What is the best Linux distro for 2022? ›

  • Linux Mint. Best Linux distro for beginners. ...
  • Chrome OS. Easy to use and best Linux distros for beginners to avoid Windows headaches. ...
  • Ubuntu. Simple to use Linux distros for beginners. ...
  • Zorin OS. Best Linux distro for beginners making the jump from Windows. ...
  • MX Linux. Easy-to-learn and lightweight Linux distro for beginners.

What is the most popular Linux distro in 2022? ›

Best Linux Distros for 2022
  1. Ubuntu. Ideal For: Professionals, Programmers, and Day-to-day Users. ...
  2. LinuxMint. Ideal For: Beginners and Those Switching from Windows. ...
  3. Pop!_ OS. ...
  4. Zorin OS. Ideal For: Every user. ...
  5. Elementary OS. Ideal For: Professional Creators and Developers. ...
  6. MX Linux. ...
  7. Nitrux. ...
  8. Kodachi.

Is there anything better than Docker? ›

1. Podman. Podman, a container engine developed by RedHat, is one of the most prominent Docker alternatives for building, running, and storing container images. Podman maintains compatibility with the OCI container image spec just like Docker, meaning Podman can run container images produced by Docker and vice versa.

Is Docker becoming obsolete? ›

But now with modern containerisation tools and container orchestration services in place (such as Kubernetes and OpenShift ) docker provides too much then it's needed to get things running. In this article we will see briefly what is containerisation, how does docker came into place and why it's becoming obsolete.

What is the best alternative to Docker? ›

List of Docker Alternatives
  • Podman.
  • LXD.
  • Containerd.
  • Buildah.
  • BuildKit.
  • Kaniko.
  • RunC.

Is Docker still relevant 2022? ›

Is Docker Still Relevant In 2022? Docker remains relevant to most container projects, applications, and developers today thanks to its modern tools, compatibility, large community, and ease of use. However, Docker Inc has undergone changes recently, among them changes to Docker Desktop licensing.

Is Alpine better than Ubuntu? ›

While an Ubuntu base image is advantageous in many ways, Alpine Linux can be a better choice in some situations. The disadvantages of Ubuntu as compared to Alpine include: Larger image size: Alpine base images total around 5.5 megabytes – much smaller than the approximately 75 megabytes that Ubuntu takes up.

Is Debian faster than Ubuntu? ›

Debian is a lightweight system, which makes it super fast. As Debian comes bare minimum and is not bundled or prepacked with additional software and features, it makes it super fast and lightweight than Ubuntu.

How much RAM is required for Core? ›

Core requires 8GB of RAM to run properly. Please keep in mind that your system must have 8GB of available physical memory.

Is docker a valuable skill? ›

However after a year of learning about this virtualization platform, Docker is one of the most important skills I have learned during my software career. In my opinion, Docker significantly improves development, deployment, and distribution of software products and platforms.

What is the minimum requirement for docker? ›

Docker Desktop for Windows requires Windows 10 (Professional, Business, Educational, and Home versions), 64-bit processing, 4GB system RAM, Windows Hyper-V and Container features, and BIOS-level hardware virtualization.

Is 4GB enough for Docker? ›

Is 4 GB RAM enough for Docker? You can run the App Connect Professional Docker container in the following configurations: Two CPUs with 4 GB RAM and a 100 GB disk. Four CPUs with 8 or 16 GB RAM and a 100 GB disk.

Do Docker containers run forever? ›

By default, containers run only as long as their default command executes but a common use case it´s to run them indefinitely for debugging and troubleshooting purposes.

Can 4GB RAM run on Docker? ›

Note: A 64-bit processor and 4GB system RAM are the hardware prerequisites required to successfully run Docker on Windows 10.

How much Linux is required for Docker? ›

OS: Linux Ubuntu. Memory: 512MB RAM (2GB Recommended) Disk: Sufficient amount to run the Docker containers you wish to use. CPU: Dependant on the applications you wish to run in the containers.

How much RAM should Ubuntu run smoothly? ›

The Ubuntu minimal requirements are as follows: 1.0 GHz Dual Core Processor. 20GB hard drive space. 1GB RAM.

IS 512 MB RAM enough for Ubuntu? ›

Yes it can! Ubuntu Sys Req can help you out with everything you need.

Does Ubuntu 20.04 have Docker? ›

By default, Ubuntu 20.04 systems come with Docker in their repositories. It is, however, important to take note of the Docker version you are using and update it from the official Docker repositories. The version of docker packages available for download is indicated in the second column.

Which kernel is best for Ubuntu? ›

Kernel and OS releases

For customers and business partners that don't have specialised bleeding-edge workloads or latest hardware needs, the latest LTS release ”-generic” kernel is the best option for them such as the 4.15 default kernel in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.

Are Debian and Ubuntu the same? ›

Ubuntu builds on the Debian architecture and infrastructure and collaborates widely with Debian developers, but there are important differences. Ubuntu has a distinctive user interface, a separate developer community (though many developers participate in both projects) and a different release process.

Which Linux features enable containers in Docker? ›

Namespaces, cgroups, seccomp, and SELinux are the Linux technologies that make up the foundations of building and running a container process on your system.

What are Dockers Linux? ›

Docker is an open source project that automates the deployment of applications inside Linux Containers, and provides the capability to package an application with its runtime dependencies into a container. It provides a Docker CLI command line tool for the lifecycle management of image-based containers.

Do I need Linux kernel for Docker? ›

WSL 2 adds support for “Linux distros” to Windows, where each distro behaves like a VM except they all run on top of a single shared Linux kernel. Docker Desktop does not require any particular Linux distros to be installed. The docker CLI and UI all work fine from Windows without any additional Linux distros.

Is Alpine faster than Debian? ›

Another Reddit user mentioned their Node app ran 15% slower when using Alpine as a base image compared to Debian. He also mentioned his Python apps were slower too. This Reddit commenter even said they had a 35% difference in speed for real world test suites where they run 500-700 unit tests a day.

How much RAM does Alpine Linux use? ›

At least 100 MB of RAM. [A graphical desktop system may require up to 1 GB minimum.]

What Linux can run on 1gb RAM? ›

Another thing to look out for Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE) which is a version of Linux Mint based on Debian. The system requirements for Linux Mint are: 512 MB of RAM is the minimum requirement whereas the recommended amount is at least 1 GB.

What Linux distro do professionals use? ›

Linux Distributions for Professionals

If you currently work in IT or aspire to work in IT, then use RedHat, CentOS, or Ubuntu. (NOTE: If you don't want to pay to use RedHat, use CentOS Stream, AlmaLinux, or Rocky Linux.)

Is there a pure Linux distro? ›

PureOS is a Linux distribution focusing on privacy and security, using the GNOME desktop environment. It is maintained by Purism for use in the company's Librem laptop computers as well as the Librem 5 smartphone.

Which Linux distro is the hardest to install? ›

Gentoo is known for being extremely difficult to install. When the topic of installing Gentoo comes up, the average time seems to be around three full days to just get the system installed.

Which Linux distro has fastest boot time? ›

Ubuntu 11.10 is the king of quick boots. It was the first fully loaded desktop distribution that could claim the 10-second boot time.

Which Linux distro is better than Ubuntu? ›

Kubuntu (KDE Plasma) Lubuntu (The least resource-hungry offering using LXDE/LXQT) Ubuntu Studio (A distro for creators) Ubuntu Budgie (Budgie desktop environment)

Which Linux distro is most stable for daily use? ›

On top of the list, Debian Linux is the most stable Linux distribution. The great thing about it is that it is user-friendly, lightweight, and compatible with other environments. The Debian team has a longer work period, which allows them to fix most of the bugs before releasing a new version.

Which Linux distro is used by NASA? ›

The enterprise solution at NASA is Red Hat. If you want to play on the official NASA network, you have to have a Security Plan, and the only Linux that has one already and is supported by IT is Red Hat Linux. Off-Network you can use all sorts of Linux (I use Raspbian on a Raspberry Pi 4 in my lab).

What is the lightest fastest Linux distro? ›

  1. Absolute Linux. Best lightweight Linux distro for desktop use. ...
  2. antiX. Best lightweight Linux distro that's chock full of apps. ...
  3. BunsenLabs. Best lightweight Linux distro for Crunchbang enthusiasts. ...
  4. Linux Lite. Great distro for migrating Windows users. ...
  5. Lubuntu. ...
  6. LXLE. ...
  7. Porteus. ...
  8. Puppy Linux.
26 Jul 2022

On which OS can we install Docker? ›

Supported platforms. Docker Engine is available on a variety of Linux platforms, macOS and Windows 10 through Docker Desktop, and as a static binary installation.

What operating systems can run Docker? ›

The factor which powers the container technology is the Linux kernel. Here, the Docker container engine is entirely dependant on the container features of the Linux kernel, and that's the reason why Docker containers cannot run on Windows and Mac operating systems.

What is replacing Docker? ›

List of Docker Alternatives
  • Podman.
  • LXD.
  • Containerd.
  • Buildah.
  • BuildKit.
  • Kaniko.
  • RunC.

Who is Docker owned by? ›

Docker (software)
Original author(s)Solomon Hykes
Developer(s)Docker, Inc.
Initial releaseMarch 20, 2013
Stable release20.10.21 / 25 October 2022
9 more rows

Can I run Docker without OS? ›

The engine can run on a physical or a virtual machine, but it can only run on top of a Linux kernel i.e. any OS that is flavour of Linux. This is important to understand. Docker engine only runs on Linux.

Is Linux Docker still free? ›

Docker Desktop may be used for free as part of a Docker Personal subscription for: Small companies (less than 250 employees AND less than $10 million in annual revenue) Personal use.

What is Docker not good for? ›

Docker does not suit applications that require rich UI. Docker is mainly intended for isolated containers with console-based applications. GUI-based applications are not a priority, their support will rely on the specific case and application.

Do big companies use Docker? ›

Who uses Docker? 8738 companies reportedly use Docker in their tech stacks, including Pinterest, Shopify, and Spotify.

Is Docker discontinued? ›

Containerd and CRI-O: Docker Alternatives

Before upgrading to a Kubernetes version removes support for Docker (which is currently estimated to release in late 2021), you will need to modify (or replace) existing Kubernetes nodes so that they use a supported container runtime other than Docker.

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