20.1 Systems of Gas Exchange – Concepts of Biology – 1st Canadian Edition (2023)

Chapter 20. The Respiratory System

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Describe the passage of air from the outside environment to the lungs
  • Explain how the lungs are protected from particulate matter

The primary function of the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the cells of the body’s tissues and remove carbon dioxide, a cell waste product. The main structures of the human respiratory system are the nasal cavity, the trachea, and lungs.

All aerobic organisms require oxygen to carry out their metabolic functions. Along the evolutionary tree, different organisms have devised different means of obtaining oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere. The environment in which the animal lives greatly determines how an animal respires. The complexity of the respiratory system is correlated with the size of the organism. As animal size increases, diffusion distances increase and the ratio of surface area to volume drops. In unicellular organisms, diffusion across the cell membrane is sufficient for supplying oxygen to the cell (Figure 20.2). Diffusion is a slow, passive transport process. In order for diffusion to be a feasible means of providing oxygen to the cell, the rate of oxygen uptake must match the rate of diffusion across the membrane. In other words, if the cell were very large or thick, diffusion would not be able to provide oxygen quickly enough to the inside of the cell. Therefore, dependence on diffusion as a means of obtaining oxygen and removing carbon dioxide remains feasible only for small organisms or those with highly-flattened bodies, such as many flatworms (Platyhelminthes). Larger organisms had to evolve specialized respiratory tissues, such as gills, lungs, and respiratory passages accompanied by a complex circulatory systems, to transport oxygen throughout their entire body.

Direct Diffusion

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For small multicellular organisms, diffusion across the outer membrane is sufficient to meet their oxygen needs. Gas exchange by direct diffusion across surface membranes is efficient for organisms less than 1 mm in diameter. In simple organisms, such as cnidarians and flatworms, every cell in the body is close to the external environment. Their cells are kept moist and gases diffuse quickly via direct diffusion. Flatworms are small, literally flat worms, which ‘breathe’ through diffusion across the outer membrane (Figure 20.3). The flat shape of these organisms increases the surface area for diffusion, ensuring that each cell within the body is close to the outer membrane surface and has access to oxygen. If the flatworm had a cylindrical body, then the cells in the center would not be able to get oxygen.

Earthworms and amphibians use their skin (integument) as a respiratory organ. A dense network of capillaries lies just below the skin and facilitates gas exchange between the external environment and the circulatory system. The respiratory surface must be kept moist in order for the gases to dissolve and diffuse across cell membranes.

Organisms that live in water need to obtain oxygen from the water. Oxygen dissolves in water but at a lower concentration than in the atmosphere. The atmosphere has roughly 21 percent oxygen. In water, the oxygen concentration is much smaller than that. Fish and many other aquatic organisms have evolved gills to take up the dissolved oxygen from water (Figure 20.4). Gills are thin tissue filaments that are highly branched and folded. When water passes over the gills, the dissolved oxygen in water rapidly diffuses across the gills into the bloodstream. The circulatory system can then carry the oxygenated blood to the other parts of the body. In animals that contain coelomic fluid instead of blood, oxygen diffuses across the gill surfaces into the coelomic fluid. Gills are found in mollusks, annelids, and crustaceans.

The folded surfaces of the gills provide a large surface area to ensure that the fish gets sufficient oxygen. Diffusion is a process in which material travels from regions of high concentration to low concentration until equilibrium is reached. In this case, blood with a low concentration of oxygen molecules circulates through the gills. The concentration of oxygen molecules in water is higher than the concentration of oxygen molecules in gills. As a result, oxygen molecules diffuse from water (high concentration) to blood (low concentration), as shown in Figure 20.5. Similarly, carbon dioxide molecules in the blood diffuse from the blood (high concentration) to water (low concentration).

Tracheal Systems

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Insect respiration is independent of its circulatory system; therefore, the blood does not play a direct role in oxygen transport. Insects have a highly specialized type of respiratory system called the tracheal system, which consists of a network of small tubes that carries oxygen to the entire body. The tracheal system is the most direct and efficient respiratory system in active animals. The tubes in the tracheal system are made of a polymeric material called chitin.

Insect bodies have openings, called spiracles, along the thorax and abdomen. These openings connect to the tubular network, allowing oxygen to pass into the body (Figure 20.6) and regulating the diffusion of CO2 and water vapor. Air enters and leaves the tracheal system through the spiracles. Some insects can ventilate the tracheal system with body movements.

Mammalian Systems

In mammals, pulmonary ventilation occurs via inhalation (breathing). During inhalation, air enters the body through the nasal cavity located just inside the nose (Figure 20.7). As air passes through the nasal cavity, the air is warmed to body temperature and humidified. The respiratory tract is coated with mucus to seal the tissues from direct contact with air. Mucus is high in water. As air crosses these surfaces of the mucous membranes, it picks up water. These processes help equilibrate the air to the body conditions, reducing any damage that cold, dry air can cause. Particulate matter that is floating in the air is removed in the nasal passages via mucus and cilia. The processes of warming, humidifying, and removing particles are important protective mechanisms that prevent damage to the trachea and lungs. Thus, inhalation serves several purposes in addition to bringing oxygen into the respiratory system.

Which of the following statements about the mammalian respiratory system is false?

  1. When we breathe in, air travels from the pharynx to the trachea.
  2. The bronchioles branch into bronchi.
  3. Alveolar ducts connect to alveolar sacs.
  4. Gas exchange between the lung and blood takes place in the alveolus.
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From the nasal cavity, air passes through the pharynx (throat) and the larynx (voice box), as it makes its way to the trachea (Figure 20.7). The main function of the trachea is to funnel the inhaled air to the lungs and the exhaled air back out of the body. The human trachea is a cylinder about 10 to 12 cm long and 2 cm in diameter that sits in front of the esophagus and extends from the larynx into the chest cavity where it divides into the two primary bronchi at the midthorax. It is made of incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage and smooth muscle (Figure 20.8). The trachea is lined with mucus-producing goblet cells and ciliated epithelia. The cilia propel foreign particles trapped in the mucus toward the pharynx. The cartilage provides strength and support to the trachea to keep the passage open. The smooth muscle can contract, decreasing the trachea’s diameter, which causes expired air to rush upwards from the lungs at a great force. The forced exhalation helps expel mucus when we cough. Smooth muscle can contract or relax, depending on stimuli from the external environment or the body’s nervous system.

Lungs: Bronchi and Alveoli

The end of the trachea bifurcates (divides) to the right and left lungs. The lungs are not identical. The right lung is larger and contains three lobes, whereas the smaller left lung contains two lobes (Figure 20.9). The muscular diaphragm, which facilitates breathing, is inferior (below) to the lungs and marks the end of the thoracic cavity.

In the lungs, air is diverted into smaller and smaller passages, or bronchi. Air enters the lungs through the two primary (main) bronchi (singular: bronchus). Each bronchus divides into secondary bronchi, then into tertiary bronchi, which in turn divide, creating smaller and smaller diameter bronchioles as they split and spread through the lung. Like the trachea, the bronchi are made of cartilage and smooth muscle. At the bronchioles, the cartilage is replaced with elastic fibers. Bronchi are innervated by nerves of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems that control muscle contraction (parasympathetic) or relaxation (sympathetic) in the bronchi and bronchioles, depending on the nervous system’s cues. In humans, bronchioles with a diameter smaller than 0.5 mm are the respiratory bronchioles. They lack cartilage and therefore rely on inhaled air to support their shape. As the passageways decrease in diameter, the relative amount of smooth muscle increases.

The terminal bronchioles subdivide into microscopic branches called respiratory bronchioles. The respiratory bronchioles subdivide into several alveolar ducts. Numerous alveoli and alveolar sacs surround the alveolar ducts. The alveolar sacs resemble bunches of grapes tethered to the end of the bronchioles (Figure 20.10). In the acinar region, the alveolar ducts are attached to the end of each bronchiole. At the end of each duct are approximately 100 alveolar sacs, each containing 20 to 30 alveoli that are 200 to 300 microns in diameter. Gas exchange occurs only in alveoli. Alveoli are made of thin-walled parenchymal cells, typically one-cell thick, that look like tiny bubbles within the sacs. Alveoli are in direct contact with capillaries (one-cell thick) of the circulatory system. Such intimate contact ensures that oxygen will diffuse from alveoli into the blood and be distributed to the cells of the body. In addition, the carbon dioxide that was produced by cells as a waste product will diffuse from the blood into alveoli to be exhaled. The anatomical arrangement of capillaries and alveoli emphasizes the structural and functional relationship of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Because there are so many alveoli (~300 million per lung) within each alveolar sac and so many sacs at the end of each alveolar duct, the lungs have a sponge-like consistency. This organization produces a very large surface area that is available for gas exchange. The surface area of alveoli in the lungs is approximately 75 m2. This large surface area, combined with the thin-walled nature of the alveolar parenchymal cells, allows gases to easily diffuse across the cells.

Concept in Action

20.1 Systems of Gas Exchange – Concepts of Biology – 1st Canadian Edition (10)

Watch the following video to review the respiratory system.

(Video) Stroll Through the Playlist (a Biology Review)

Protective Mechanisms

The air that organisms breathe contains particulate matter such as dust, dirt, viral particles, and bacteria that can damage the lungs or trigger allergic immune responses. The respiratory system contains several protective mechanisms to avoid problems or tissue damage. In the nasal cavity, hairs and mucus trap small particles, viruses, bacteria, dust, and dirt to prevent their entry.

If particulates do make it beyond the nose, or enter through the mouth, the bronchi and bronchioles of the lungs also contain several protective devices. The lungs produce mucus—a sticky substance made of mucin, a complex glycoprotein, as well as salts and water—that traps particulates. The bronchi and bronchioles contain cilia, small hair-like projections that line the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles (Figure 20.11). These cilia beat in unison and move mucus and particles out of the bronchi and bronchioles back up to the throat where it is swallowed and eliminated via the esophagus.

In humans, for example, tar and other substances in cigarette smoke destroy or paralyze the cilia, making the removal of particles more difficult. In addition, smoking causes the lungs to produce more mucus, which the damaged cilia are not able to move. This causes a persistent cough, as the lungs try to rid themselves of particulate matter, and makes smokers more susceptible to respiratory ailments.


Animal respiratory systems are designed to facilitate gas exchange. In mammals, air is warmed and humidified in the nasal cavity. Air then travels down the pharynx, through the trachea, and into the lungs. In the lungs, air passes through the branching bronchi, reaching the respiratory bronchioles, which house the first site of gas exchange. The respiratory bronchioles open into the alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. Because there are so many alveoli and alveolar sacs in the lung, the surface area for gas exchange is very large. Several protective mechanisms are in place to prevent damage or infection. These include the hair and mucus in the nasal cavity that trap dust, dirt, and other particulate matter before they can enter the system. In the lungs, particles are trapped in a mucus layer and transported via cilia up to the esophageal opening at the top of the trachea to be swallowed.


  1. Which of the following statements about the mammalian respiratory system is false?
    1. When we breathe in, air travels from the pharynx to the trachea.
    2. The bronchioles branch into bronchi.
    3. Alveolar ducts connect to alveolar sacs.
    4. Gas exchange between the lung and blood takes place in the alveolus.
  2. The respiratory system ________.
    1. provides body tissues with oxygen
    2. provides body tissues with oxygen and carbon dioxide
    3. establishes how many breaths are taken per minute
    4. provides the body with carbon dioxide
  3. Air is warmed and humidified in the nasal passages. This helps to ________.
    1. ward off infection
    2. decrease sensitivity during breathing
    3. prevent damage to the lungs
    4. all of the above
  4. Which is the order of airflow during inhalation?
    1. nasal cavity, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
    2. nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
    3. nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchioles, bronchi, alveoli
    4. nasal cavity, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
  5. Describe the function of these terms and describe where they are located: main bronchus, trachea, alveoli, and acinus.
  6. How does the structure of alveoli maximize gas exchange?


(Video) Biology Ch#13-Lecture#07 Respiration in fishes (F.Sc 1st Year)

  1. B
  2. A
  3. C
  4. B
  5. The main bronchus is the conduit in the lung that funnels air to the airways where gas exchange occurs. The main bronchus attaches the lungs to the very end of the trachea where it bifurcates. The trachea is the cartilaginous structure that extends from the pharynx to the primary bronchi. It serves to funnel air to the lungs. The alveoli are the sites of gas exchange; they are located at the terminal regions of the lung and are attached to the respiratory bronchioles. The acinus is the structure in the lung where gas exchange occurs.
  6. The sac-like structure of the alveoli increases their surface area. In addition, the alveoli are made of thin-walled parenchymal cells. These features allow gases to easily diffuse across the cells.


alveolar duct
duct that extends from the terminal bronchiole to the alveolar sac
alveolar sac
structure consisting of two or more alveoli that share a common opening
alveolar ventilation
how much air is in the alveoli
(plural: alveoli) (also, air sac) terminal region of the lung where gas exchange occurs
airway that extends from the main tertiary bronchi to the alveolar sac
(plural: bronchi) smaller branch of cartilaginous tissue that stems off of the trachea; air is funneled through the bronchi to the region where gas exchange occurs in alveoli
domed-shaped skeletal muscle located under lungs that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
voice box, a short passageway connecting the pharynx and the trachea
complex glycoprotein found in mucus
sticky protein-containing fluid secretion in the lung that traps particulate matter to be expelled from the body
nasal cavity
opening of the respiratory system to the outside environment
particulate matter
small particle such as dust, dirt, viral particles, and bacteria that are in the air
throat; a tube that starts in the internal nares and runs partway down the neck, where it opens into the esophagus and the larynx
primary bronchus
(also, main bronchus) region of the airway within the lung that attaches to the trachea and bifurcates to each lung where it branches into secondary bronchi
respiratory bronchiole
terminal portion of the bronchiole tree that is attached to the terminal bronchioles and alveoli ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli
respiratory distress syndrome
disease that arises from a deficient amount of surfactant
respiratory quotient (RQ)
ratio of carbon dioxide production to each oxygen molecule consumed
respiratory rate
number of breaths per minute
terminal bronchiole
region of bronchiole that attaches to the respiratory bronchioles
cartilaginous tube that transports air from the larynx to the primary bronch


What are the concepts of gas exchange? ›

During gas exchange oxygen moves from the lungs to the bloodstream. At the same time carbon dioxide passes from the blood to the lungs. This happens in the lungs between the alveoli and a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries, which are located in the walls of the alveoli.

Which system exchanges co2 and o2? ›

The lungs and respiratory system allow us to breathe. They bring oxygen into our bodies (called inspiration, or inhalation) and send carbon dioxide out (called expiration, or exhalation). This exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is called respiration.

What is gas exchange system step by step? ›

The four steps of gas exchange are ventilation, pulmonary gas exchange, gas transport, and peripheral gas exchange. These processes describe how gas is inhaled, exhaled, exchanged at the alveoli, transported through the blood, and again diffused across cellular membranes in body tissues.

What are the five major steps of gas exchange? ›

The processes of the respiratory system are pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of gases, internal respiration, and cellular respiration.

What are the 3 principles of gas exchange? ›

Three processes are essential for the transfer of oxygen from the outside air to the blood flowing through the lungs: ventilation, diffusion, and perfusion.

What is the gas exchange system and functions? ›

At each cell in your body, oxygen is exchanged for a waste gas called carbon dioxide. Your bloodstream then carries this waste gas back to the lungs where it is removed from the bloodstream and then exhaled. Your lungs and respiratory system automatically perform this vital process, called gas exchange.

What are the 4 requirements of gas exchange? ›

Efficient gas exchange systems must: have a large surface area to volume ratio • be thin • have mechanisms for maintaining steep concentration gradients across themselves • be permeable to gases.

Which gas exchange method is most efficient? ›

Because of the constant flow of gas across the gas-exchange membrane and the constant partial pressure differences, gills are the most efficient respiratory system in exchanging gases.

What are the 7 main parts of the respiratory system? ›

These are the parts:
  • Nose.
  • Mouth.
  • Throat (pharynx)
  • Voice box (larynx)
  • Windpipe (trachea)
  • Large airways (bronchi)
  • Small airways (bronchioles)
  • Lungs.

How do you get rid of carbon dioxide in your body? ›

CO2 is transported in the bloodstream to the lungs where it is ultimately removed from the body through exhalation.

How can I improve my lung gas exchange? ›

What is the treatment for impaired gas exchange and COPD?
  1. Bronchodilators. Bronchodilators are medications that help open up your airways, making breathing easier. ...
  2. Lifestyle changes. If you smoke, your doctor will encourage you to quit smoking. ...
  3. Vaccines. ...
  4. Pulmonary rehabilitation. ...
  5. Surgery.
Oct 29, 2021

What is the exchange of gases between air and lungs called? ›

Final answer: The process of gaseous exchange in lungs between air and blood is called external respiration.

How o2 and co2 is transported in the blood? ›

Oxygen is carried both physically dissolved in the blood and chemically combined to hemoglobin. Carbon dioxide is carried physically dissolved in the blood, chemically combined to blood proteins as carbamino compounds, and as bicarbonate.

What transports gases in the blood? ›

The two major gases carried by the blood are O2 and CO2. Almost all the O2 is transported by erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are anucleate biconcave discs that have the smooth shape and elasticity necessary to squeeze through the capillaries.

What are the 4 main functions of the lungs? ›

  • Allows you to talk and to smell.
  • Warms air to match your body temperature and moisturizes it to the humidity level your body needs.
  • Delivers oxygen to the cells in your body.
  • Removes waste gases, including carbon dioxide, from the body when you exhale.
Jan 24, 2020

What is the law of gas exchange? ›

According to Ficks law, the rate of gas transfer across a tissue playing or membrane is directly proportional to the difference in partial pressures of the gas on the two sides of the membrane.

What are the two systems for the exchange of gases? ›

External respiration is the exchange of gases with the external environment, and occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases with the internal environment, and occurs in the tissues.

Which 3 characteristics are essential for effective gas exchange? ›

It must be permeable to the gases. It should be thin( 1mm or less) to allow diffusion effectively. The respiratory surface must have a large surface area for maximum oxygen uptake in minimum time. It must be richly supplied with blood vessels for maximum oxygen uptake.

What reduces gas exchange? ›

A significant cause of diffusion problems is pulmonary edema, as fluid in the lungs increases the effective thickness of the alveolar wall and decreases the area of gas exchange.

What is the name of the muscle that is used for breathing? ›

During breathing at rest, this is accomplished by the coordinated activity of the diaphragm and inspiratory rib cage muscles.

How does water affect gas exchange? ›

Gas Exchange at the Air–Water Interface

Chemically, exchange is driven by the concentration gradient across the air–water interface. The gradient can arise as a result of several processes, including changes in solubility and biochemical reactions which alter aqueous concentrations.

Why does it hurt when I take a deep breath? ›

About pleurisy

The most common symptom of pleurisy is a sharp chest pain when breathing deeply. Sometimes the pain is also felt in the shoulder. The pain may be worse when you cough, sneeze or move around, and it may be relieved by taking shallow breaths. Other symptoms can include shortness of breath and a dry cough.

Which body organ is not in the respiratory system? ›

The larynx and lungs are parts of the human respiratory system. Diaphragm helps in expansion of thoracic cavity during breathing. However, the heart does not have any role in breathing.

What naturally removes CO2? ›

1) Trees and Forests

Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air naturally, and trees are especially good at storing CO2 removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis.

What happens if you don t get rid of carbon dioxide in your body? ›

If your body can't get rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product, it can build up in your blood. Hypercapnia can be chronic (long-lasting) and cause symptoms like shortness of breath (dyspnea) and daytime tiredness or fatigue. It can also be acute (sudden or all at once), with much more serious symptoms.

Does drinking water help get rid of carbon dioxide? ›

As counter-intuitive as it may sound, your body needs water to breath: the lungs consist of 85% water. In order to take in oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide, our lungs must be continually moistened with water.

How do I get my lungs back to normal? ›

Exercise increases the amount of oxygen that gets delivered to cells and tissues throughout your body. Cardiovascular exercises like brisk walking, swimming, running, and cycling are ideal for helping to clear out your lungs after you quit smoking.

How can I reverse lung damage naturally? ›

Quitting smoking is the most effective thing you can do to minimize and heal lung damage. Whether you've been smoking for three days or 30 years, quitting is the first step to healthier lungs. Adjusting your diet can also help benefit your lung health, especially if you're living with a chronic condition.

Which lung diseases can affect gas exchange? ›

Gas exchange in disease: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and interstitial lung disease.

What is breathing and exchange of gases concept? ›

Oxygen is required for catabolic processes and carbon dioxide is released in the process. So the body requires a continuous exchange of gases, oxygen from the atmosphere is taken inside and carbon dioxide produced is taken out. This process of gaseous exchange is called breathing or respiration.

What is the most important factor in gas exchange? ›

Two important aspects of gas exchange in the lung are ventilation and perfusion. Ventilation is the movement of air into and out of the lungs, and perfusion is the flow of blood in the pulmonary capillaries. For gas exchange to be efficient, the volumes involved in ventilation and perfusion should be compatible.

What is the most important factor for determining gas exchange? ›

The main factors include:
  • Membrane thickness - the thinner the membrane, the faster the rate of diffusion. ...
  • Membrane surface area - the larger the surface area, the faster the rate of diffusion. ...
  • Pressure difference across the membrane.
  • Diffusion coefficient of the gas.

What does gas exchange depend on? ›

Gas exchange by diffusion depends on the large surface area provided by the hundreds of millions of alveoli in the lungs. It also depends on a steep concentration gradient for oxygen and carbon dioxide. This gradient is maintained by continuous blood flow and constant breathing.

What increases gas exchange? ›

According to Fick's law of diffusion, diffusion of a gas across the alveolar membrane increases with: Increased surface area of the membrane. Increased alveolar pressure difference (PA-Pa) Increased solubility of the gas.

What causes poor gas exchange in lungs? ›

By far the commonest cause of impaired gas exchange in patients with lung disease is ventilation-perfusion inequality. This is a complicated topic and much can be learned from computer models. Ventilation-perfusion inequality always causes hypoxemia, that is, an abnormally low PO2 in arterial blood.

What makes gas exchange more efficient? ›

Efficient gas exchange systems must: have a large surface area to volume ratio • be thin • have mechanisms for maintaining steep concentration gradients across themselves • be permeable to gases.

What blood vessels help with gas exchange? ›

Alveoli are wrapped in tiny blood vessels called capillaries. The air you breathe in fills these air sacs with oxygen-rich air. This is where the exchange of gases occurs.

What is the role of the brain in controlling gas exchange in humans? ›

The respiratory rate is controlled by the respiratory center located within the medulla oblongata in the brain, which responds primarily to changes in carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH levels in the blood. The normal respiratory rate of a child decreases from birth to adolescence.

What is the difference between gas exchange and respiration? ›

Respiration is the process in which food is oxidized to release energy. Complex organic compounds are converted into simpler ones, e.g glucose into CO2 water and energy released. Gaseous exchange is the diffusion of gases from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower one.


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